1/ From DNA to protein: genotype to phenotype. How does information flow from genes to proteins?

2/ Protein structure and function; application of restriction enzymes in molecular cloning.

3/ Microbial fermentation techniques. The microbiology of anaerobic digestion.

4/ Food Biotechnology: Microbiology of fermented foods and beverages

5/ The main differences in the public health impact of obesity in industrialized and non-industrialized countries.

6/ Australopithecus sediba and its implications for the origins of the genus Homo.

7/ Mendel’s experiments: “Characters” of different pure lines of pea affecting seed shape and color; flower color and position; pod shape and color; and stem length. F1 progeny and F2 progeny in monohybrid crosses. Mendel’s first law. Define genotype and phenotype; dominance and recessiveness.

8/ Mendel’s experiments: F1 progeny and F2 progeny in dihybrid crosses. Mendel’s second law. Explain the cellular basis of Mendel’s laws.

9/ Describe the characteristics used to classify or categorize viruses! List several important viral diseases of humans! Explain lytic cycle and lysogeny!

10/ Compare and contrast the differences among protozoa and fungi! List those protozoa that cause enteral and sexually transmitted diseases! List at least three protozoa that are transmitted by arthropod vectors, name the vectors, describe the ways of infections and the nature of the diseases!

11/ Basic principles of the architecture of higher plants.

12/ Basic principles of fluorescence, fluorescence in biology and fluorescent microscopy.

13/ Fine structure of the eukaryotic cell.

14/ The cell cycle and the retinoblastoma ptotein.


1/ Spectrophotometer

2/ MiSeq DNA Sequencer

3/ Continuous fermentation system

4/ 2D-ELFO

5/ Sliding caliper

6/ Skinfold caliper

7/ DNA sequencing machine, Sanger/capillary sequencing

8/ Output of an automatic DNA sequence analysis

9/ Anaerob incubator

10/ Autoclave

11/ Microscope, fluorecent microscope, stereo microscope

13/ Aralab FitoClima growth chamber

15/ Cryotome

16/ Horizontal Laminar Flow Cabinet